AP Research is the second class in the AP Capstone program after AP Seminar. It's similar to an independent study class and consists entirely of one year-long research project on a topic of your choice. You will write a research paper summarizing your findings and then give an oral presentation followed by a defense of your argument.
Senior research paper is a paper that should be written by senior students at high school. As usual students choose the topic of the paper by themselves. It gives an opportunity to involve their professional interests and to prepare a background for further research.